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Wakhi Language (Xikwor Zik) Volume-1 (1985) PM000000120000005131 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in Alphabet, gojal, wakhi.
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Mr. Haqiqat Ali (Late) was one of the pioneers to study and voicing for Wakhi culture and language. His contribution to Wakhi language was though of primary nature but had long-lasting impact on the minds and hearts of thinking Wakhis. His three books on Wakhi language Wakhi Language: Volume 1 1985 , and Tourism & Trekking (Trekkers guide to Hunza – 1984, Trekkers guide to Chitral – 1999)  were a land mark, as he did not received any formal education from a college or University, but yet he was able to author two books out of his tireless efforts and life experience.
He was a man of word, humane and intellectual. His wisdom led a revolution in the field of studies in Wakhi language and culture. We solute him and pray to Almighty Allah that May his soul rest in eternal peace. Ameen (Words: Ahmed Jami Sakhi)


Wakhi Language: Volume 1 (Xikwor Zik Book-1) by Mr. Haqiqat Ali (Late) 1985

Pdf file: WAKHI LANGUAGE by Haqiqat Ali 1985

Booklet scanned and shared with Wakhi community and worldwide:

August 30, 2011


GIS Map of Gыlmit & Hussaini in Wakhi Script PM00000050000000231 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan.
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Gыlmit, Tehsil Headquarter of Gojal (Before Attabad Disaster -2008)

Gыlmit, Tehsil Headquarter of Gojal (After Attabad Disaster -2011)

Hussaini Gojal

Passu Map can find here with pdf file.


Save Gojal-Hunza AM00000020000003031 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan.

Wakhi cultural Dance (Sisuni) AM00000090000001331 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, wakhi.
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Gulbtur Live: http://www.youtube.com/gulbtur

Passu Image & Thematic Map (in Wakhi Script) AM000000100000005130 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan, Villages.
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Click to enlarge

By Ali Rehmat Musofer

On GIS Day (19 November 2008), The first Image and thematic Map of Passu in Wakhi Script is published in Wakhi Blog for the interest of viewers, linguists, travelers, and tourists, These map are published for the test only, we are working on a very detail map of Gojal with all local names in Wakhi script, Inshallah with the collaboration of WTCA, MASGIS, Gojal Local Council and other NGOs, we will publish the first Wakhi Map of Gojal in coming year in 2009. We need your contribution and good suggestions. We will conduct a research based survey in Gojal to find out all the local names of different valleys and villages and mapped them on their exact location (geographic location) with all details and phtographs of the physical, cultural sites, hotels, shops etc. So many location original names are changed and so many are reading and writing wrongly, i.e. Khunzhrav to Khunzhrab.
 click to open the pdf for clear view.



Thematic detail map of Passu village………..Open the pdf for clear view

open pdf for clear view



Passu has been one of the most visited regions of Gojal valley. Passu is famous because it is home of the Batura Glacier. Adding more to the beauty of Passu, standing at the Northern end of the village, is Mount Tupopdon. Inspired by its unique structural attributes tourists have promoted the peak by giving it new names. Some call it “Passu Cones” and others “Passu Cathedral”. Mount Tupopdon is the most photographed peak of the region.  
Passu Diyor e Jayišt :
Yašvendan, Nobod, Past Diyor, Jonabod, Ṣ̌it, Kip Ɣ̌ar, Yaz e ben, Pitk e mis, Sыrыnobod, Tepopdan,


Avdegar, Reč, Zwor, Čramn, daṣ̌t,


Woz ki cumer be jayve nungišt tey, nivšit. Ṣ̌oboṣ̌it


GIS DAY 2008 (www.gisday.com)

Shispare Peak AM00000090000000530 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan, Places.
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Shispare is notable for its tremendous rise above local terrain. For example, the nearby town of Karimabad, in the Hunza Valley, has an elevation of 2,060 meters (6,758 ft), making for 5,550 metres (18,200 ft) of relief, in only 13km (8 mi) horizontal distance. Being near the end of the Batura Muztagh, it commands large drops in three directions (north, east, and south). In addition, Shispare has a strikingly large and steep Northeast Face.

Climbing began in the Batura Muztagh later than in other parts of the Karakoram. Shispare was the first major peak in the range to be successfully climbed, in 1974, by the “Polish-German Academic Expedition” under the leadership of Janusz Kurczab. The ascent took 35 days, and during preparations for a second group to try for the summit, one member of the expedition (Heinz Borchers) was killed in an avalanche.

The first ascent route followed the Pasu Glacier to the East Ridge, between the Pasu and Ghulkin glaciers. (Note: this ridge goes southeast from the summit, turns northeast, and then turns roughly east, so it is called the “southeast ridge” and the “northeast ridge” in different sources.) Difficulties included a long ice ridge, and the access to the ridge required 1500m of fixed rope.

The next attempt was in 1989 by members of the Ryukoku University Alpine Club in Japan, led by Masato Okamoto. The group was on the mountain for almost two months, but was not able to summit; their high point was around 7200 meters. 

In 1994, a group from the Komono Alpine Club in Japan, led by Yukiteru Masui, achieved the second ascent of the peak. They reached Base Camp on June 18th, and Masui, Kokubu, and Ozawa reached the summit on July 20. They followed the same route as the first ascent party and climbed in a similar style, with a similar amount of fixed rope.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shispare

Views of Shisper Peak from Hussaini Village.



Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan.
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By Fabeg Musofir (M. Phil) Researcher/Consultant

This paper aims at floating and stimulating ideas on “interests and identities” that become instrumental as unifying/binding forces to push up and achieve the interests and get identities at different levels. What are the issues, if there is no regional or sub-regoinal identity as binding-force in a diverse community at smaller scales such as the clusteral villages from Passu to Shishkat? An attept has been made, therefore, to contribute to the clusteral (or sub-regioal) entities of Gojal Hunza in an academic perspective.

Interests and identities are two interdependent features around which peoples in any society and culture always encircle or revolve and bind themselves in one way or the other. Along with pursuance of their interests at different levels, peoples also endeavor to have their identity in the same way. Human interests and identities vary in nature and scope. They could be at individual level or group level, or at the communal level within a village or valley, within a region or county or beyond. Types of interests entailed with identities have no limited boundary: they may range from socioeconomic to cultural realms, from sciences & technologies to religions & spiritualism, from politics to the ethno-linguistics and regional domains.

Interests and identities bring up both blessings (positive change) and curses (negative change) at individual level to the group, at communal level to the regional—depending on the intent, nature and intensity. After acquiring the interests and identities, people at any level (micro or macro) in any field (e.g., socioeconomic or poltico-cultural) feel a considerable satisfaction, an honor, take a pride and an ownership for such endeavors and accomplishments to whatsoever extent they may be. Such arguments also hold true to the interests and identities of the peoples of Gojal Hunza.

Gojal in Hunza valley, an international borders’ tehsil (magistracy), has a very strategic geographical entity and ethnic diversity. The naturally strategic (geographical) setting of the region, on the one hand, contributes to both opportunity of interests and opportunity of identities at various scales (including local, national & international). On the other, internally, the diverse cultural settings also leads towards opportunity of interests, identities and sometimes risks and threats as well.

The geographical area of Gojal, scattered on more than 10,000 sq km out of 11,500 sq km of entire Hunza, is comprised on mainly five valleys. These valleys have got their respective names (identity) such as Shimshal, Avgarch, Khunzhrav, Misgar and Chipursan that bind the peoples of more than 22 clans, almost 30 sub-clans and three linguistic groups of Gojal together with their individual and communal interests.

Shimshal (natively termed as Shingshal, consisting on a cluster of five villages) and Avgarch (a cluster of 12 villages) have some similar nature of phenomenon besides their common geographical border. In an average 14 generations before, the peoples of these two areas have common ancestral relationships within their own valleys whose apical ancestors have come from two opposite directions. Apical ancestor of the Shingshal people (known as Mamusing, behind whom the valley is associated as Singshal or settlement of Sing), has reached in the valley from Chaprot valley (in Nagar).

Conversely, the apical ancestor of majority of Avgarch people (known as Bobo Sufi and presently having three sub-clans after him) has come from Ghoron within Shughnon district in Afghan Badakhshan. Besides, there are also small number of ethnic groups who have come from Wakhan and Central Hunza. The latter is the phenomenon of almost one hundred year. Therefore, one of the binding or unifying forces for these peoples around their interests, to a significant level, is their kinship relationships whereby the communal cause/interest in the valleys are addressed and met in addition with the peoples’ strong feeling of pride and ownership of their respective valleys/clusters.

In Avgarch valley (cluster villages from Khyber to Sost & Khudabad), there are two main linguistic groups, the Wakhi and the Burushaski speakers, dwell side by side with each other sometimes embracing and sometimes differing linguistic pluralism. So at the linguistic level, their languages are the unifying force for the respective speakers. This holds also true to both these linguistic groups in other valleys of Gojal. (It is noteworthy that when we talk of a valley, it is imperative to have mountains on both sides, as we talked about Avgarch valley).

Misgar valley, gateways to China & Afghanistan through its passes within the sub-valleys, is a generous host to a unilingual (Burushaski) but tetra-clan community who have emigrated from Baltit (Central Hunza) more than a century before. Here all are purely Burushaski speaking people as we find in Shimshal valley that all are purely Wakhi speakers. Though, in the ethnical context, Misgar is a diverse valley, as cited above that four clan groups are here. While in the natural setting, Misgar has an extensive territory like Shimshal.  Besides their individual or clan differences in contrast with their lingual and faith similarities (being Shia Ismailis except for few households having Sunni faith), the people are unified around their valley (regional) interests and prideful identity as Misgari whenever there comes any issue/challenge.

Chipursan valley (like Misgar, Khunzhrav and Shimshal) is a strategic valley that borders Pamir-e-khurd (Little Pamir) of Afghanistan through Irshod Pass. Chipursan may rightly be called as the saint valley that has got colorful stories behind the Saint Bobo Ghundi nearly in all villages. Two language-speakers (Wakhi & Burushaski) and more than 20 clan groups are found in this valley. Majority of the people of this valley have out-migrated from the villages of lower Gojal (Gulmit to Passu, although, there is also presence of a small number of emigrants from Baltit (Central Hunza) and Wakhan (Afghanistan). One thing, which is notable in Chipursan valley, especially in the Wakhi speaking villages, is that generally the people do not refer each other with their clan names (although internally it exists and plays its significant role), but rather the people refer themselves with their originally emigrated villages as Gulmitik (dweller of Gulmit: suffiix –ik for dwellier), Paswik, Sissunik, Ghulkinik, and Wux̌ik.

Besides their personal, lingual, clan or village differences but under the chain of their faith, the people of Chipursan gather around their regional/valley level interests and needs. In this regard, we can find many concrete examples such as construction of the road infrastructures of Chipursan. This we can also see in the context of Shimshal and Misgar valleys.

Khunzhrav valley itself hasn’t got any permanent settlement of the natives. Rather the communities of Avgarch valley and Ghulkin reside here on seasonal-basis who graze their livestock on the pasturelands. The famous Khunzhrav National Park (KNP) is also in this valley and for the protection of this park there are the security forces who reside here through out the year. It was this valley on which the Khunzhrav Villagers Organization (KVO) of Avgarch valley had sued against the government in the court regarding its ownership and the demands of the community were met.

In a very sharp contrast to the identified valleys and peoples, there is neither any common regional entity for this cluster of settled villages (6 main and 15 sub-villages) from Pass to Shishkat as we see in the context of Misgar, Chipursan, Avgarch and Shimshal, nor does this part of Gojal have a common ancestral identity (like Shimshal & majority of Avgach people) to more than 20 clan and almost 30 sub-clan groups who dwell in addition with three languages (Wakhi, Burushaski and Domaki) of these ethnicities. Domaki, unfortunately, has become a more endangered language rather moving towards extinction. Preservation and promotion of this language is a must, indeed.

The apical ancestors of all these clan groups (from Shishkat to Passu) have emigrated from different geographical regions such as Central Hunza, Nagar, Baltistan, Wakhan and Darwoz (Afghanistan), Sarikol (China), Almaty (Kazakhstan) and even Darel (Diamar district). Such diversity of ethnicities brings both opportunity (if perceived positively) and threat (if perceived negatively) from the diverse worldviews. So, in the real world in the context of the respective communities, one can imagine objectively that to what extent, this diversity of ethnicities and languages could be positively perceived as strengths and utilized these strengths (worldviews & positive disagreements of opinions etc) for the societal development? Litigations on pasturelands through out the region/valley among different villages evidence acceptance or refusal of the diverse ethnicities & languages. So holds true to this lower part of Gojal as well. Being a sensible and unbiased reader and observer, how would one reflect on this point? I am leaving further analysis and resolves on you.

This lower geographical part, being a majority population of Gojal, has got more disagreements among peoples at intra-village and inter-villages levels. Reasons are absence of any regional identity as a unifying force, prevalence of ethnic chauvinism (as are also found among the peoples of other valleys) in addition with historically political and lingual factors, besides lack of land resources, which is more applicable on Shishkat.

In absence of any regional (cluster level) identity, there comes up wide gaps among the people of the cluster villages. Therefore, it is imperative to fill the wide gaps and push the community towards their development interests.

The Shia Ismail Council has its presence in this part of Gojal since 1969. This is a neutral and faith-driven platform and is a good source as binding-force. But because of the diverse ethnic identities, people sometimes raise questions about it as well. Questions could not be with regard to the Ismaili council’s neutrality witin itself, but rather about the objectivity of peoples serving on voluntary capacity therein. Second, because, this esteemed organization has an appendix of Gulmit that doesnot represent other villages in toponymical term. On the other hand, there are internally embeded ethnical (clan) and lingual factors besides externally imposed pseudo-political factors such as PML & PPP or MQM, altough, such factors also resemble with other valleys/regions.

Keeping in view the aforementioned rationales, it seems pertinent to have a common regional entity—getting out of the ethnical, lingual & faith affinity—to the peoples of this area of jurisdiction under the specified councils, Ismaili council or union Council (UC) so that there should be collective participation, pride, ownership and honor for that identity. It is not a big deal to have a common or communal identity at the cluster/union council level. Only, a name needs to be given. Names need to be proposed and through consensus, one name shall be selected as are for Avarch (name brought by Bobo Sufi from Wakhan), Shingshal (actual behind Mamusing as Singshal) or other valleys. For proposing the name, it is necessary to work out for some set criteria or standards. For example, the name should be locally-driven, acceptable to the majority of people, attractive and easily pronounceable, meaningful and representative to the area or otherwise.

Having these discussions in length, there finally rise a question: could there be a name that gives the cluster of these villages (from Passu to Shishkat) a common identity and pride as we can see in the context of other clusters of villages in other parts of Gojal or entire Hunza? Answer requires for this question; and the respective cluster area needs to think about and come to a solution. This question has been tickling me, time and again. About this question, whenever, I got leisure time, I pondered over and even asked some respondents in this regard.

Exercises were made to look for the names through different methods. Names of the respective villages, pasturelands, glaciers, peaks and geographical characteristics were resolved, abbreviated and coined together so that to come up with appropriate word (name), if possible.

Consequently, different names came up. One of the names, seemed fitting and striking, was “Pomiri”, a pastureland in Burundu Bar sub-valley in Shishkat INazimabad). The high grasslands with variety of flowers on the mountains is called “Pomiri” in Wakhi and “Pameri” in Burushaski. Such Pomiris are found on the pasturelands of different villages including Gul Butur of Passu and Hussaini as well as Ghulkin. Pomiri, therefore, could be acceptable to the respective villages.

Keeping in view the climatic conditions & geographical characteristics, some other names also emerged in result of the toponymical exercises. Some of them are being mentioned hereunder:

Although, the area from  Passu to Shishkat is orphan in having the clusteral identity (name) but conversely is rich in diversity of ethnicities and more particularly with regard to a naturally special characteristic: that is, the region is a generous and sincere host to seven glaciers including the world’s famous Butur glacier (the word corrupted as Butura, unfortunately), Passu glacier, Ghulkin-Hussaini glacier, Gulmit glacier, Shutubar glacier, Burundubar glacier and Baltbar glacier that contribute enormously to the Hunza River. It was, therefore, attempted to search out for the names depicting the glacial characteristics also. Consequently, names derived were Yazkhun (house of glaciers), Yazabod/Yazabad (settlements of glaciers) and Yazboy (rich in glaciers).

The area from Shishkat to Passu has another significant characteristic in climatic domain. The seven glaciers, as cited above, contribute to an intensified wind, especially during the winter, and

becomes like Bod-e Wakhon (Wind of Wakhan). Therefore, some names emerged from this characteristic such as “Dumabar in Wakhi stands for “the wind house” and in with the combination of the Wakhi & Burshaski language that means as a hybrid term for the “Wind Valley”. Another name was also extracted is “Dumaboy”, means “rich in wind” in Wakhi.

After resolving, abbreviating & coining up the sub-valleys/ravines (i.e., Butur, Zhrav, Baltbar, Brundubar & Shutuebar) in the cluster villages (Passu to Shishkat),  another word (name) emerged was “Buzbar”—goat’s valley: “buz” in Farsi for goat and “bar” in Burushaski for ravine/valley. Historically, of course, Gojal including this part has been the Buzbar, the buzes (goats) with sheep, paid as taxes to the rulers (Mirs) of the former Hunza State. While combination of the same word “Buzbar” as a combination of Farsi and Wakhi gives the meaning of “goat’s house/place. This holds true as the people of the area who still practice pastoral activities along with agriculture. In abbreviation, Buzbar is combination of “Bu” for Butur; “Z” for Zhrav, and bar for Baltbar, Brundubar & Shutubar.

It is hoped that the readers, especially the educated youth & leaders, of the area from Passu to Shishkat would deliberate meticulously and come up with a meaningful, attractive and representative name so that to unite the communities under a geographical entity that gives them a genuine and positive pride, honor and ownership. A representative and consensus-based name for this clusteral identity within Huna-Gojal region, not necesseraily proposed above, will also help in appropritely naming the newly Local Support Organization (LSO) promoted by the  Aga Khan Rural Support Programe (AKRSP). Coming to the end, what would you think or suggest in this regard?

Culture & Music of Wakhi Tradition AM00000040000004231 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan, wakhi.
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Around the time he began his teaching career, Alam was already making a name for himself. In 1988 Radio Pakistan began playing songs in Wakki on the radio. Music plays deep through the veins of most Wakki people and Alam knew his cousin had a good voice but needed the right inspiration through song and instrument. He began writing and together they practiced long and hard until they believed they were ready.

Their chance soon came at a local audition for new talent on Radio Pakistan. On the big day, all the big names were present but nobody had ever heard of Alam Jan Dario and his lyrical cousin. When their turn came to play, the crowd was stunned to silence and immediately asked for an encore. Radio Pakistan asked them to do a recording and the rest as they say is history. Alam and his cousin are now famous throughout the Tajki speaking world and treated as celebrities wherever they go. His songs are always about love, nature and what Alam calls “Chapursan nationalism.”




Click and Play wakhi songs by Dario. More Songs Coming Soon!!!

More detail at source: http://www.pamirtrails.com/culture.htm

Passing Time In Passu.. AM00000090000004231 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan, Places, Villages.

01 Cathedral Mountains.., Passu, Pakistan

Cathedral Mountains..

After Karimabad we made our way up to Passu which is about 70 kilometres from the Chinese border. Essentially Passu is a small town situated right on the KKH. Surrounded by mountainous peaks (including a stunning backdrop called the Cathedral Mountains) and two glaciers it’s a great place to base yourself for a couple of treks in the area. Compared to Karimabad it’s a very very small village with only three shops none of which stayed open past 8PM. It’s certainly not a place to come if you want to party which suited us fine.

More Pics: http://spatialworld.multiply.com/photos/album/19/PASSU

The village itself is a nice place to walk around for half a day or so and all the village kids love to race around you or simply practice their English. In this part of Pakistan (and Hunza in general) the women folk are also very visible and keen to talk (mainly to Kat). A nice change from other parts of Pakistan.

In reality there’s not much to do in Passu itself but watch the trucks come and go to the Chinese border, watching the villagers come and go about their business and complete a couple of day treks around the area (more on them in the next two pods).

And that’s Passu I guess.

Next Pod – Two Bridges Trek, Passu, Pakistan. Love, Nath and Kat.

Source: http://www.travelpod.com/travel-blog-entries/natandkat/nkhoneymoon/1160126460/tpod.html

Highest (paved) road in the world! Khunzhrav Pass AM00000090000001331 7, 2008

Posted by Mыsofer in gojal, Gojal Pakistan, Places.
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Khunjerab Pass @ 4800 meters, Tashkurgan, China

To anyone who knows this part of the world this Pass will need no explanation. (looking on a map its just a very thin pieces of Pakistan (all white because of the mountains between Afghanistan and India and just touches West China)
The Khunjerab Pass is the highest paved border crossing in the world and the highest point on the Karakoram Highway. The roadway across the pass was completed in 1982, and has superseded the unpaved Mintaka Pass and Kilik Pass as the primary passage across the Karakorum Range. Due to the altitude of the Pass its closed for most of the year because of the snow, its only possible to cross between May 1 and 15th October and that’s if you are lucky and the weather is good. Very reassuringly the name Khunjerab Pass is derived from Wakhi for ‘Blood Valley’ because for centuries this crossing was used by caravans plodding down the Silk road where locals took advantage of the terrain, robbed the caravans and slaughtered their merchants.
My journey started at in Tashkurgan from where I had tried to book the bus for the next day but was informed that I couldn’t but this would be know problem, it leaves at 8am so just be here then…sounds to simple.

And it was….In the morning I woke early and was just about to have a (cold bucket) shower and some breakfast before we set off when I heard the sound of a big diesel engine, most of the traffic here being horse and carts, I correctly assumed that the only possible thing it could be was the bus to Pakistan. I had clearly been wrongly informed on the time as it was now 6:30am, not 8! Luckily I managed to run out and stop the bus, they all looked very shocked that I wanted to get on but waited while I ran back to the hotel and grabbed my bag. After the excitement I was very warmly welcomed by a group of Pakistani’s and most of the bus to be honest. They were all eager to talk (as they all spoke English, not as we know it but good enough to communicate, which was nice after months of trying to speak, Russian, Chinese, Kyrgyz or Kazak with people). After not long we stopped at a Pakistan restaurant for breakfast, (and I had my first cup of tea with milk in it since England), we then stopped at the first Chinese check point where a border guard got on out bus to ensure we did not stray off route to the border, he chain smoked the whole way.
We headed steeply up, via a number of switch backs all the way to 4800meters, where is was noticeably colder and any physical exertion, including walking was noticed by becoming quickly short of breath. We stopped for a quick break here which was also good as we switched from the right hand side of the road to the left in Pakistan (from when the British were here).
Most border crossing are notoriously a pain in the arse but this one to me seemed a pleasure, some of the best mountain scenery in the world and the Pakistani border guards were very nice, happy to have their photos taken with me then even thanking me!
On the Pakistani side, the highway travels about 50 km across the extensive Khunjerab National Park before, which is home to the big curling horned Marco Polo sheep (of which there are only a few hundred in the world),the Himalayan ibex, golden marmots (which all scatter off in to their burrow as the bus approaches), wolves and the elusive snow leopards. (I think its where they got that amazing footage for David Attenbough’s Planet earth of the snow leopard chasing the ibex).
Once on the Pakistan side we stopped a customs, where I was not even searched as they did not want to offend me, they just asked if I had any alcohol and when I replied no, they said, well go and have lunch while we search the other people. The guys I was sitting with insisted they would take me for lunch, we went to a little local hut that didn’t look all that good but the food they ordered was great, (although it took a bit of getting used to eating curry with no utensil, just hands.) The flavors were the best Id tasted in a long time and then the guys would not even let me pay for my meal, saying I was a guest in their country!
I could type about the road all day, every corner we turned there was a different snow capped mountain, quite simply a breathtaking journey, made all the better by great company!
From the minute I got on the bus I got a good vibe and feeling about Pakistan and its people! Lets hope this continues and Im right!More detail at source: http://www.travelpod.com/travel-blog-entries/markwilliams84/3/1214465640/tpod.html